Acid reflux occurs when stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, the tube that connects your throat to your stomach. This backward flow, or reflux, can lead to heartburn and other uncomfortable symptoms. While occasional acid reflux is common, experiencing these symptoms repeatedly may indicate a more severe condition known as Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD).
GERD is a chronic condition where acid reflux occurs more than twice a week or causes inflammation in the esophagus. Persistent acid reflux that affects your quality of life or leads to complications is considered GERD.
Symptoms of GERD may include heartburn, regurgitation of food or sour liquid, difficulty swallowing, coughing, chest pain, and a sensation of a lump in your throat. The exact cause of GERD is complex and may involve multiple factors, including a hiatal hernia, obesity, pregnancy, smoking, certain medications, and a delay in stomach emptying.
Risk factors for GERD include obesity, pregnancy, smoking, asthma, diabetes, delayed stomach emptying, connective tissue disorders, and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. GERD can affect anyone, but you’re more likely to experience GERD if you’re overweight or obese, are pregnant, smoke, or you have a hiatal hernia.
Making certain modifications to your lifestyle and diet can significantly mitigate the uncomfortable symptoms of GERD. Here are some practical suggestions:
Various over-the-counter medications can provide relief from the symptoms of GERD:
Remember to always consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new medication to manage GERD symptoms.
There are cases when it’s necessary to consult a healthcare professional about GERD symptoms. If your symptoms are frequent or severe, it is advised to get medical attention. Despite making lifestyle changes and using over-the-counter (OTC) medications, if you experience no relief from GERD symptoms, it may indicate a more serious condition that requires a doctor’s attention.
On the other hand, if GERD symptoms interfere with your daily life activities, it’s important to seek medical advice. This interference may reveal the severity of the condition and shed light on its impact on your quality of life.
Lastly, if you experience difficulty swallowing or unexplained weight loss along with GERD symptoms, make an appointment with your healthcare provider as soon as possible. Difficulty swallowing, or dysphagia, could be a sign of damage or other complications in your esophagus, while unexplained weight loss could point to malnourishment or other serious health conditions. Don’t ignore these symptoms; remember, early diagnosis and treatment can prevent further complications associated with GERD.
In cases where GERD symptoms are severe and have not responded to lifestyle changes or over-the-counter medication, your healthcare provider may recommend prescription medication or more intensive treatment options.
Proton pump inhibitors are a type of medication that reduces the production of stomach acid, relieves GERD symptoms, and allows any damage to the esophageal lining to heal. Prescription-strength PPIs, such as Nexium, Prevacid, and Prilosec, are typically stronger than their over-the-counter counterparts and are usually recommended for long-term management of severe GERD symptoms.
When medication fails to provide relief, a surgical procedure known as Nissen fundoplication may be recommended. This procedure involves wrapping the stomach’s top part around the esophagus’s lower end and stitching it in place. This strengthens the lower esophageal sphincter, preventing acid reflux.
In certain cases, other medical procedures may be considered. Stent placement involves placing a device into the esophagus to keep it open, which can help alleviate difficulty swallowing. The LINX procedure, on the other hand, involves the implantation of a ring of tiny magnetic beads around the junction of the stomach and esophagus. This strengthens the lower esophageal sphincter, preventing acid reflux, but allows food to pass into the stomach.
As with all medical treatments, it is important to discuss all options with your healthcare provider to determine the best approach for your individual case.