Colon cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, affecting both men and women. It occurs when there is an abnormal growth of cells in the colon or rectum, which are parts of the large intestine. While it can be a deadly disease, early detection and proper treatment can greatly increase survival rates.
Colon cancer, also termed colorectal cancer, primarily starts as a noncancerous growth known as a polyp inside the inner lining of the colon (the longest part of the large intestine). Over time, these polyps can become colon cancers. It’s pertinent to understand that not all polyps transform into cancer and the transition often takes several years.
Recognizing the symptoms of colon cancer is crucial for early detection. Some common signs include changes in bowel habits such as diarrhea, constipation, or change in the consistency of the stool lasting more than a few weeks. Other symptoms may consist of rectal bleeding or blood in the stool, persistent abdominal discomfort, feeling that your bowel doesn’t empty completely, weakness or fatigue, and unexplained weight loss. Remember, these symptoms can also be due to conditions other than colon cancer such as irritable bowel syndrome, hemorrhoids, or infections. Therefore, it’s important to consult a healthcare professional if any of these symptoms persist.
Certain factors may increase an individual’s risk of developing colon cancer. This includes being over 50 years of age, having a personal or family history of colon cancer or polyps, engaging in a low-fiber and high-fat diet, leading a sedentary lifestyle, having diabetes, obesity, smoking, alcohol, and certain genetic conditions such as Lynch syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP).
While you can’t control some risk factors such as age and genetic disposition, there are lifestyle changes that can reduce your risk significantly. Adopting a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, maintaining a healthy weight, regular physical activity, cessation of smoking, and moderating alcohol consumption can all contribute to lowering the risk. Furthermore, regular screenings can help in detecting any abnormal growths in the colon that could potentially lead to cancer. For individuals with average risk, screenings typically begin at age 50; however, those with increased risk might need to begin earlier and get checked more often. Speak with your healthcare professional to determine the most appropriate screening schedule for you.
Early detection of colon cancer plays a critical role in successful treatment outcomes. Regular screening is the most reliable method to catch colon cancer in its initial stages before symptoms even appear. The advantage of early detection is that it often allows for less aggressive treatment options and can significantly increase the survival rate. When colon cancer is identified and treated in its early stages, the 5-year survival rate is approximately 90%, whereas late-stage detection drastically reduces this rate to approximately 14%. This underscores the importance of regular screenings as a part of routine healthcare, especially for individuals in high-risk categories.
Screenings, such as colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, or stool-based tests, can not only detect cancer but also prevent its occurrence by identifying and removing polyps before they have a chance to develop into cancer. A conversation with your healthcare provider about the right time to start screening and the most appropriate test for you based on your individual risk factors could potentially be a life-saving discussion.
While symptoms can vary among individuals and some might not experience any symptoms especially in the early stages of colon cancer, there are certain signs that should prompt immediate medical attention. These include:
It’s important to note that these symptoms can be indicative of other health issues too, such as inflammation, infections, or hemorrhoids. However, if you observe any of these symptoms, especially if they persist or worsen over time, you should immediately consult a healthcare professional. Remember, early detection significantly improves the prognosis of colon cancer, making awareness of these symptoms critical.
Treatment options for colon cancer are diverse, and the choice often depends on the stage and location of the cancer as well as the patient’s overall health. Here are some of the common treatment methods:
Remember, the effectiveness of these treatments can vary based on individual circumstances. A thorough discussion with your healthcare provider will help you understand the best treatment options for your condition.
Receiving a diagnosis of colon cancer can be a daunting experience. However, the proactive steps you take post-diagnosis and during your treatment could significantly impact your recovery journey. Here are some steps to consider:
It’s important to remember that every individual’s journey with colon cancer is unique, and what works for one person might not work for another. Therefore, it’s crucial to maintain an open line of communication with your healthcare team and make decisions that feel right for you.